Lacing (Crown Thinning):
Selective pruning to reduce density of live branches. Includes the removal of dead, diseased, or weak wood, and low hanging & crossing branches as well as excess suckers or water sprouts.
The reduction of the size of a tree, using drop-crotch pruning (a trimming cut which removes the terminal portion of a large branch back to a lateral branch large enough to assume a terminal role).
Improving artistic & structural form of a tree using drop crotch pruning.
Removing low hanging branches back to a lateral branch large enough to assume a terminal role.
Cutting an older branch or stem back to a stub in order to meet a defined structural objective. Also called Topping. NOT A RECOMMENDED PRACTICE!
Cabling & Bracing:
Cabling is the attachment of high strength cable between weak or structurally unsound branches in a tree. Bracing uses bolts or threaded rods to rigidly secure weak co-dominant stems, split crotches, or split trunks.
Deep Root Fertilization & Aeration:
The application of essential nutrients (as needed) using soil fracturing (aeration) techniques.